首頁 > 元素周期表

元素周期表

0
1
1
氫 H
2
氦 He
2
3
鋰 Li
4
鈹 Be
5
硼 B
6
碳 C
7
氮 N
8
氧 O
9
氟 F
10
氖 Ne
3
11
鈉 Na
12
鎂 Mg
13
鋁 Al
14
硅 Si
15
磷 P
16
硫 S
17
氯 Cl
18
氬 Ar
4
19
鉀 K
20
鈣 Ca
21
鈧 Sc
22
鈦 Ti
23
釩 V
24
鉻 Cr
25
錳 Mn
26
鐵 Fe
27
鈷 Co
28
鎳 Ni
29
銅 Cu
30
鋅 Zn
31
鎵 Ga
32
鍺 Ge
33
砷 As
34
硒 Se
35
溴 Br
36
氪 Kr
5
37
銣 Rb
38
鍶 Sr
39
釔 Y
40
鋯 Zr
41
鈮 Nb
42
鉬 Mo
43
锝 Tc
44
釕 Ru
45
銠 Rh
46
鈀 Pd
47
銀 Ag
48
鎘 Cd
49
銦 In
50
錫 Sn
51
銻 Sb
52
碲 Te
53
碘 I
54
氙 Xe
6
55
銫 Cs
56
鋇 Ba
*
鑭系
72
鉿 Hf
73
鉭 Ta
74
鎢 W
75
錸 Re
76
鋨 Os
77
銥 Ir
78
鉑 Pt
79
金 Au
80
汞 Hg
81
鉈 Tl
82
鉛 Pb
83
鉍 Bi
84
釙 Po
85
砹 At
86
氡 Rn
7
87
鈁 Fr
88
鐳 Ra
**
錒系
104
Rf
105
Db
106
Sg
107
Bh
108
Hs
109
Mt
110
Uun
111
Uuu
112
Uub
113
Uut
114
Uuq
115
Uup
116
Uuh
117
Uus
118
Uuo
*鑭系元素
57
鑭 La
58
鈰 Ce

59
鐠 Pr

60
釹 Nd

61
钷 Pm
62
釤 Sm
63
銪 Eu
64
釓 Gd
65
鋱 Tb
66
鏑 Dy
67
鈥 Ho
68
鉺 Er
69
銩 Tm
70
鐿 Yb
71
镥 Lu
**錒系元素
89
錒 Ac
90
釷 Th
91
鏷 Pa
92
鈾 U
93
镎 Np
94
钚 Pu
95
镅 Am
96
鋦 Cm
97
锫 Bk
98
锏 Cf
99
锿 Es
100
鐨 Fm
101
鍆 Md
102
锘 No
103
鐒 Lr

關于元素周期表

元素周期表是1869年俄國科學家門捷列夫(Dmitri Mendeleev)首創的,后來又經過多名科學家多年的修訂才形成當代的周期表。

元素周期表中共有118種元素。每一種元素都有一個編號,大小恰好等于該元素原子的核內電子數目,這個編號稱為原子序數。

原子的核外電子排布和性質有明顯的規律性,科學家們是按原子序數遞增排列,將電子層數相同的元素放在同一行,將最外層電子數相同的元素放在同一列。

元素周期表有7個周期,16個族。每一個橫行叫作一個周期,每一個縱行叫作一個族。這7個周期又可分成短周期(1、2、3)、長周期(4、5、6)和不完全周期(7)。共有16個族,又分為7個主族(ⅠA-ⅦA),7個副族(ⅠB-ⅦB),一個第ⅧB族,一個零族。

元素在周期表中的位置不僅反映了元素的原子結構,也顯示了元素性質的遞變規律和元素之間的內在聯系。

同一周期內,從左到右,元素核外電子層數相同,最外層電子數依次遞增,原子半徑遞減(零族元素除外)。失電子能力逐漸減弱,獲電子能力逐漸增強,金屬性逐漸減弱,非金屬性逐漸增強。元素的最高正氧化數從左到右遞增(沒有正價的除外),最低負氧化數從左到右遞增(第一周期除外,第二周期的O、F元素除外)。

同一族中,由上而下,最外層電子數相同,核外電子層數逐漸增多,原子序數遞增,元素金屬性遞增,非金屬性遞減。

元素周期表的意義重大,科學家正是用此來尋找新型元素及化合物。

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